The process of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) consists of several steps: The capture, possible transport and storage of CO2 gas. These three technologies are all intensely researched and developed in Europe.
A variety of capture technologies have been developed, such as post-combustion (capture of CO2 from flue gases), pre-combustion (capture by fuel conversion), oxyfuel combustion (capture by fuel combustion using pure oxygen) and high-purity CO2 (sources that emit almost pure CO2). Capture can be done at industries using fossil fuels, for instance refineries, power plants or petrochemical companies, or at offshore oil and gas rigs.
Once CO2 is captured, it often needs to be transported to the location where it can be stored. The major users of fossil that capture CO2, are often not located in the vicinity of underground CO2 storage sites. Most of the time transport will run via pipelines or, for smaller quantities, tank ships.
Storage can be done in several types of geological storage facilities. Depleted oil and gas fields, coalbeds and porous deep saline sandstone formations (aquifers) have proven to be suitable for storing CO2. The CO2 is injected by using new or existing boreholes from the oil and gas industry. Stored CO2 is intensely monitored to assess the behaviour and distribution of the CO2 in the underground storage facilities.